Architectural monuments in Bulgaria 1
Vihren Peak Blagoevgrad Region
Vihren Peak is located at an altitude of 2914 meters on Mount Pirin, which is located in Southwestern Bulgaria and is part of the Rilo-Rhodope massif. Vihren Peak is the second highest absolute peak in Bulgaria and third in the Balkans. Located between the rivers Mesta and Struma. Most of the lakes formed in the mountains are located in this region. Only here, from the whole territory of the country, the edelweiss flower grows. This place is accessible from Banderitsa valley. Until 1942, the peak was called Eltepe.
Mill Pyramids Blagoevgrad Region
The Mill Pyramids are located on the southwestern slopes of Pirin Mountain. They are beautiful natural formations of sand layers, towering majestically above the smallest town in Bulgaria – the town of Melnik. The pyramids reach a height of 100 meters. Over the millennia, as a result of the erosive action of wind and water, various bizarre forms have formed – mushrooms, swords, minarets, “Egyptian” pyramids, needles, cones, etc. Some of the most impressive natural sculptures are those that have the shape of mushrooms. The tops of the pyramids are covered with various deciduous trees and herbs. The Melnitsky Pyramids are the most popular of nature’s creations in Bulgaria.
Stone Forest (Bulgarian Beat Stones) Varna Region
The stone forest is one of the most interesting natural phenomena in Bulgaria and all over the world. The area is located on the Black Sea coast, next to the Varna lakes, near the city of Varna. The entire area is covered with rock columns (hence their name), formed over many millennia. The entire territory is 50 km². Stone columns reach a height of 5-7 meters, and a thickness of 0.3 to 3 meters, inside they are hollow, without a strong foundation and seriously eroded. The shape of these columns is very reminiscent of a cylinder.
According to scientists, these stone columns were formed 50 million years ago, when Southeast Europe was the seabed. The reason was ancient volcanic processes, accompanied by the release of methane. Gas bubbles emerged from the seafloor, lifting up molten lava, which instantly cooled and solidified upon contact with cold water. After the formation of the olons, methane continued to make its way, which made them hollow in the middle. The stone forest was declared a natural monument in 1937.
Magura Cave Vidin Region
Magura Cave is located in Northwestern Bulgaria, 17 kilometers from the town of Belogradchik. The cave is located in the limestone hill of the Rabish barrow, which is 461 meters above sea level. Magura Cave is one of the largest caves in Bulgaria. Its length is about 2500 meters. It consists of a large hall and three side branches. The cave has formations rich in shapes and sizes – stalactites, stalagmites, stalactons, karst pockets, cave pearls, “cave milk”. In addition to its beauty and impressive size, the cave is impressive.t “Big stalokton“ whose height is 20 meters with a diameter at the base of 4 meters. “Fallen Pine” is the largest stalagmite of all on the territory of Bulgaria. Its length is 11 meters, and the diameter at the base is 6 meters. According to geological studies, the formation of the Magura cave began about 15 million years ago. In the halls, prehistoric rock paintings were found, carved into the rocks and painted with guano / bat droppings. The figures reflect dancing female silhouettes, as well as dancing and hunting men, people in masks, various animals, stars, tools and plants. The drawings are dated from the times of different eras – the Epipaleolithic, Neolithic, Eneolithic, the beginning of the Bronze Age. also, you can see the solar calendar of the late Eneolithic and additions from the beginning of the Bronze Age – all records are absolutely accurate. Thanks to rock drawings, the local calendar and holidays with their symbols and specific characters have been preserved.
Belogradchik Rocks Vidin Region
The Belogradchik rocks are unique rock formations located in the western Cis-Balkan region and cover an area 30 km long and 15 sq. This amazing natural phenomenon was formed over 200 million years – rains and winds eroded softer rocks, turning shapeless stones into sculptures resembling mythical creatures, human silhouettes, animals and birds. There are several groups of rocks:
– Falkovskaya group. The easternmost of the three groups, where you can see Momina sakala (Maiden Rock), Pchelen kamak (Bee stone), Borov kamak (Pine stone), Orlov kamak (Eagle stone) and others;
– Central group. The largest group of rocks, where are Uchenichkata (Student), Mislen kamak (Conceived stone), Madonata (Madonna), Dervisht (Dervish), Velikova head (Great head), Adam and Eve, Kukuvitsata (Cuckoo), Konnikat (Horseman) and Metokht (Monastery).
– Zbegovskaya group. Located in the westernmost part of this area, where you can see Bliznatsite (Gemini), Magaza and Boric, the Rock Fairy.
These unique rocky elevations /up to 200 m high/ form a natural fortress, its defensive potential has been used since ancient times. For centuries, rocks have been used by people as natural defensive fortifications. In strategic places, people completed the construction of stone walls, thanks to which the fortress was well protected. It served as a fortification during three historical periods: The Roman period – from the 1st to the 4th centuries. Medieval period – from the 17th to the 19th century and the Ottoman period – in the 19th century, from 1805 to 1837. The Belogradchik Rocks were officially declared a “Natural Landmark” in 1949.
Ledenika Cave Vidin Region
Ledenika Cave is located in the bowels of the Stara Planina massif (Staraya Gora) – the northwestern region, the Streshensky part of the Vratsa Mountains, 16 km from the city of Vratsa. The entrance to the cave is located in the lowest part of the Ledenikovy Uval (Ledenishkiy Uval), 830 meters above sea level. The temperature in the cave varies from -7 ° C to 15 ° C, with a stable temperature of 8 ° in the very depths of the cave. In the lowest part of the cave of Ledenika is the hall “Ventrance“ (Lobby). In winter and summer, this hall enchants with its ice decorations, hence the name of the cave. A few meters long corridor with the name “Plaznyata” (Skolzukha) leads to the “Malkata Zala” (Small) round hall, and after a few meters of the corridor, there is the “Concert Hall” (Concert Hall – so named because of its amazing acoustics). Here you can see the Crocodile, the Falcon, the Head of the Giant, Santa Claus and others. “Byalata Zala” (White Hall), in which rise: Mother-in-law’s Tongue, Giant’s Wife, Elephant, Bathing Girl. The highest point is called “Sedmoto nebe” (In the seventh heaven). Only in this cave you can see the insect “Ledenicus” or “Lightspider
Bacho Kiro Cave Vratsa Region
Bacho Kiro Cave is one of the most visited caves in Bulgaria. It is 300 meters from the Dryanovo Monastery and 6 km from the town of Dryanovo. The cave is located at an altitude of 335 meters above sea level, in a sheer limestone rock 25 meters high. Bacho Kiro Cave is a four-story labyrinth, which consists of galleries and deviations /corridors/ for 3600 meters. Ancient tools and traces of human presence were found in the cave, which date back to the Middle and Late Paleolithic.
There are many limestone formations in the Bacho Kiro cave, formed over the centuries under the influence of water – these are various forms of rocks such as: “Jellyfish”, “Stone Flower”, “Elephant”, “Lonely Stalacton”, etc. Rock formations “Rainy Hall” are especially impressive ”, “Reception Hall” and “Concert Hall”. The most well-studied by archaeologists is the first hall of the Bacho Kiro cave.
Kaliakra Cape Dobrich Region
Nose Kaliakra is located 60 km northeast of the city of Varna. It is a steep coast with sheer cliffs, whose height reaches 70 meters. The name of this area means – Beautiful Cape. There are many legends and myths associated with Cape Kaliakra. One of the most famous legends is the legend of 40 Bulgarian girls who rushed from high cliffs into the sea, led by the beautiful Kaliakra, in order not to fall into the hands of the Ottoman Turks. In order for some of the girls not to run away out of fear, they all braided their braids with neighboring girls, so they all jumped into the sea and drowned.
Seven Rila Lakes Kyustendil region
Seven Rila Lakes is one of the most beautiful places in Bulgaria. The lakes are located stepwise, in a large square on the northern slope of Damka peak (north-western Rila), at an altitude between 2100 and 2500 m above sea level. The lakes are connected with streams that flow through them, due to which small fountains and waterfalls were formed.
The name of each lake is associated with its specific external features. The numbering of the lakes starts from the last: Sjalzata (Tear), Okoto (Oko) (the deepest tarn lake in Bulgaria, 37.5 m long), Bybreka (Kidney) (the steepest shores of the entire group), Bliznaka (Twin) (the longest lake ), Trefoil (Trefoil), Ribnoto (Fish) (the greatest shallowness). The lowest of the lakes is Lake Dolno (Lower). It collects water flowing from other lakes. The Dzherman River originates from the last lake.
Syeva Dupka Cave Lovech Region
Syeva dupka cave is located in Northern Bulgaria, near the village of Brestnitsa, 25 km from the town of Teteven, at an altitude of 520m above sea level, 400m long. It was named after the brothers Sye and Seyu, who took refuge in the cave during the reign of the Ottoman Empire. Many animal bones, pottery and coins have been found in the cave, dating back to the time of the Roman Empire.
The cave has five hallswhy the name of each of them has its own history: Kupena – in the middle of the hall a large stalacton is erected, resembling a large haystack, from where the name of the hall comes from; Srutischeto (Nuthuthatch) – this hall was formed during an earthquake. It is strewn with rock fragments, some of which are 3.2 m high. Then other halls follow: Harman, Cosmos (named so because its karst forms look like flying rockets). Impressive forms are also found in the last hall – Beliyat Zamak (White Castle).
In 1963 the cave is included in the list of natural attractions, and in 1967. it has been improved.
Snezhanka Cave Pazardzhik Region
Snezhanka Cave is located in the western part of the Rhodope Mountain, 5 km from the town of Peshtera. This cave is small in size, only 145m long, but you can see very beautiful glacial forms in it. It was formed 3.5 million years ago by the Novomakhlenskaya river.
It was named after the stalagmite located in the “Magic Hall”, which resembles a white female body – “Snezhanka” (Snow Maiden). In the last hall, there are several “curtains” 10-20 cm high, which give out a ringing with a light knock. Still, it is desirable that visitors do not knock on them, but only a guide to prevent them from breaking. In addition, he knows better than anyone which of them rings the most melodically.
The cave was opened in 1961. After the research, in the “Great Hall” and in the hall “Dwelling” (Dwelling), bones and clay vessels were found, made by human hands, without the help of a potter’s wheel. They have survived from the time of ancient trucks to the present day.